A revised version of North Korea’s administrative sanctions law recently obtained by the Daily NK details violations surrounding the establishment and use of air raid shelters in residences and public buildings over three floors. The penalties for these violations have also been tightened, according to the revised law.
Specifically, section 56 of the law, which focuses on “violations of the civil air raid system”, deals with violations relating to the construction, maintenance and use of air raid shelters while establishing specific criteria. for penalties for such violations.
The law, which was amended last December by order of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Congress, entered into force on March 1 of this year. The collection of North Korean laws currently available on the South Korean National Intelligence Service website includes only the 2016 version of the law. Using a copy of the revised law, Daily NK was able to confirm what exactly section 56 of the law says.
The violations described in section 56 of the Act include those relating to the construction, maintenance and use of air raid shelters; failure to put in place measures to prevent damage during air raids; behavior that violates the âban exercise systemâ; and actions that violate the âorderâ of evacuation and dispersal exercises in wartime.
Regarding violations in the construction, maintenance and use of air raid shelters, the law cites various examples, including: not designing underground air raid shelters when constructing houses or public buildings larger than three floors ; not constructing air raid shelters as planned; do not build air raid shelters for government agencies, businesses or organizations; not respecting the occupancy standards of shelters; allow shelters to fill with garbage or sewage and become unusable due to poor maintenance; and the use of shelters for purposes other than those for which they were intended.
In short, the law requires that residences and public buildings over three floors have air raid shelters and that they be properly maintained. In addition, shelters must not be used as living spaces, storage spaces or for purposes other than the protection of persons during air raids.
Following the North Korean armed incursions in the late 1960s (including the raid of the Blue House in January 1968), the South Korean government demanded that single and multi-family residences have basement spaces when The country’s building law was revised in 1970. The revision essentially prohibits people from building living spaces in basements. However, this mandate was later abolished amid a growing housing shortage as urbanization took hold during the country’s economic development.
The revised Administrative Sanctions Law also strengthened the sanctions for violations of air raid shelter requirements.
The article of law concerning these penalties provides for warnings, serious warnings, fines or up to three months of unpaid or disciplinary work for violations of the âcivil anti-aircraft systemâ. In serious cases, the law provides for penalties of more than three months of unpaid or disciplinary work, demotions, dismissals or dismissals. Through a comparison with the 2016 version of the law, the Daily NK found that references to âdisciplinary lawâ had been added in the latest revision.
The law lists nine categories of administrative sanctions: warnings and serious warnings; unpaid work; correctional work; demotions, dismissals and layoffs; fines; pay compensation; confiscations; suspensions of activity; and suspension, demotion and removal of credentials.
Among these, correctional labor involves sending a person to a city or county-level correctional labor camp to perform forced labor for violations that do not involve “criminal liability.” The law fixes the duration of correctional work from five days to six months.
While “unpaid work” involves a person doing hard physical labor in an area outside of their assigned work unit, “correctional work” is considered a more severe punishment because it involves performing work. in a designated labor camp.